Plains Apache (Na’isha), also known as Kiowa Apache, is the most divergent of the Apachean languages. It is a member of the eastern Apachean subgroup of the Apachean branch of the Athabaskan language family. Related languages include Lipan and Jicarilla. More distantly related languages include Navajo, Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache and Hupa. Plains Apache is currently spoken in Caddo County, Oklahoma.
Selected Language Information
Bittle, William E. 1956. The Position of Kiowa Apache in the Apachean Group. PhD. dissertation, University of California.
Bittle, William E. 1963. Kiowa Apache. University of California Publications in Linguistics Vol. 29. 76-101.
Hoijer, Harry. 1945. Classificatory Verb Stems in the Apachean Languages. International Journal of American Linguistics. Vol. 11:1. 13-23.
Morgan, Juliette. 2012. Classificatory Verbs in Plains Apache. Masters Thesis. University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 166.
Young, Robert W. 1983. Apachean Languages. In Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest(Vol. 10). Alfonso. Ortiz, William. C. Sturtevant (eds.) Washington: Smithsonian Institution. 393-400.